مکان‌یابی ژن‌های کنترل‌کننده صفات فیزیولوژیک آفتابگردان تحت شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

3 دانشیار گروه زیست شناسی دانشکده علوم دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش شوری بر عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیک آفتابگردان و تجزیه ژنتیکی صفات در شرایط تنش شوری، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلدانی در فضای باز انجام گرفت. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل سطوح مختلف تنش شوری (نرمال و تنش ناشی از 6 دسی‌زیمنس‌بر‌متر) و لاین‌های خویش آمیخته نوترکیب آفتابگردان (102 لاین حاصل از تلاقی بین دو لاین RHA266 و PAC2 به همراه والدین) بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل عملکرد دانه، محتوای کلروفیل، میزان فتوسنتز خالص، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، غلظت عناصر Na+ و K+ بود که در مرحله بعد از گلدهی کامل اندازه گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش شوری روی عملکرد دانه، Na+، K+ و نسبت‌های Na+/K+، K+/ Na+ و محتوای نسبی آب برگ معنی‌دار می‌باشد. از نظر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده شد. تجزیه ژنتیکی صفات مورد مطالعه با استفاده از نقشه پیوستگی تهیه شده با 221 نشانگر مولکولی (SNP11SSR/210) با متوسط فاصله 44/7 سانتی‌مورگان بین نشانگرها به روش مکان‌یابی فاصله‌ای مرکب (CIM) انجام گرفت. در مجموع برای 8 صفت مورد مطالعه 8 QTL در شرایط تنش و 10 QTL در شرایط نرمال شناسایی شد. درصد تغییرات فنوتیپی توجیه شده توسط QTL‌ها بین 4/10% تا 4/34% متغییر بود. با بررسی مکان‌های ژنی شناسایی شده تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش شوری مشخص شد QTL‌های Na+.S.4.1 با Na+/K+.S.4.1 و Chl.NS.6.1 با K+.S.6.1 هم‌مکان هستند. استفاده از QTL‌های هم‌مکان در شرایط مختلف محیطی می‌تواند موجب افزایش کارایی انتخاب به کمک نشانگر و پیشبرد برنامه‌های به-نژادی گیاهی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mapping QTLs controlling physiological traits of sunflower under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariba Morsali Aghajari 1
  • Reza Darvishzadeh 2
  • Naser Abbaspour 3
1 M.Sc. in Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of salinity on yield and physiological traits of sunflower and genetic analysis of these traits under salinity conditions, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications were performed outside the greenhouse in an open air area under natural environmental conditions. The studied factors were included 2 salinity stress levels (normal and 6 dS/m) and sunflower recombinant inbred lines (102 lines derived from the cross PAC2 ×RHA266 together with parental lines). Traits such as grain yield per plant, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, leaf relative water content, Na+ and K+ concentrations were measured after flowering. The effect of salinity was significant on grain yield, leaf relative water content, Na+ and K+ concentrations as well as on Na+/K+ and K+/ Na+ ratios. For all traits, significant differences were observed between the genotypes studied. Genetic analysis of studied traits was done using a linkage map comprising 221 molecular markers (210 SSR/11 SNP) with an average distance of 7.44 cM between markers via composite interval mapping (CIM) procedure. Totally, 10 and 8 QTLs were detected for studied traits under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2) ranged from 10.4%- 34.4%. The results showed the existence of co-localized QTLs for some of the studied traits under normal and salt stress conditions including Na+.S.4.1 with Na+/K+.S.4.1, Chl.NS.6.1 with K+.S.6.1. Using co-localized QTLs in different environmental conditions and different years could enhance the efficiency of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oily sunflower
  • QTL analysis
  • Salt tolerance
Abdi N, Darvishzadeh R, Hatami Maleki H, Haddadi P, Sarrafi A (2013) Identification of quantitative trait loci for relative water content and chlorophyll concentration traits in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture. 100: 159-166.

Abdi N, Darvishzadeh R, Jafari M, Pirzad A, Haddadi P (2012) Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of agro-morphological traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under two contrasting water treatment conditions. Plant OMICS Journal. 5: 149-158.

Ahmadi J, Fotokian MH (2011) Identification and mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) using SSR markers.Iran J. Biotech. 9: 21-30.

Akram M, Ashraf MY, Ahmad R, Waraich EA, Iqbal J, Mohsan M (2010) Screening for salt tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids at an early seedling stage. Pak. J. Bot. 42: 141-154.

Amouzadeh M, Darvishzadeh R, Davar R, Abdollahi Mandoulakani B, Haddadi P, Basirnia A (2015) Quantitative trait loci associated with isolate specific & isolate non-specific partial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 17: 213-226.

Anwar Ul Haq M, Akram S, Akhtar J, Saqib M, Saqib ZA, Jan M (2013) Morphophysiological characterrization of sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L.) under salin condition. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 50: 49-54.

Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. J. Plant Sci. 166: 3-16.

Ashraf M, Athar HR, Harris PJC, Kwon TR (2008) Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Adv Agron. 97: 45-110.

Ashraf M, Akram NA (2009) Improving salinity tolerance of plants through conventional breeding and genetic engineering: an analytical comparison. Biotechnol Adv. 27: 744-752.

Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2013) Crop breeding for salt tolerance in the era of molecular markers and marker-assisted selection. Plant Breeding. 132: 10-20.

Azizpour K, Shakiba MR, Khosh Kholgh Sima NA, Alyari H, Moghaddam M, Esfandiari E, Pessarakli M (2010) Physiological response of spring durum wheat genotypes to salinity. J. Plant Nutr. 33: 859-873.

Azzedine F, Gherroucha H, Baka M (2011) Improvement of salt tolerance in durum wheat by ascorbic acid application. J. Stress Physiol. Biochem. 7: 27-37.

Basten CJ, Weir BS, Zeng ZB (2002) QTL Cartographer, version 1.16: Program in Statistical Genetics.Raleigh,NC,USA:North CarolinaStateUniversity.

Bybordi A, Tabatabaei SJ, Ahmadey A (2010) NaCl salinity effect on qualitative, quantitative and physiological attributes of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Journal of Water and Soil. 24: 334-346.

Chen M, Kang Y, Wan S, Liu S (2009) Drip irrigation with saline water for oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Agr. Water Manage. 96: 1766-1772.

ChurchillGA, Doerge RW (1994) Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics. 138: 963-971.

Collard BCY, Mackill DJ (2008) Marker assisted selection: An approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty first century. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 363: 557-572.

Collard BCY, Jahufer MZZ, Brouwer JB, Pang ECK (2005) An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts. Euphytica. 142: 169-196.

Darvishzadeh R, Pirzad A, Hatami Maleki H, Poormohammad Kiani S, Sarrafi A (2010) Evaluation of the reaction of sunflower inbred lines and their F1 hybrids to drought conditions using various stress tolerance indices. Span. J. Agric. Res. 8: 1037-1046.

Delgado IC, Sanchez Raya AJ (1999) Physiological response of seedling sunflower to salinity and K sources. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 30: 773-783.

Desingh R, Kanagaraj G (2007) Influence of salinity stress on photosynthesis and antioxidative systems in two cotton varieties. Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol. 33: 221-234.

Drazkiewicz M (2000) Chlorophyllase: occurrence, functions, mechanism of action, effects of external and internal factors. Photosynthesis. 30: 321-331.

Eker S, Comertpay G, Kdnuskan O (2006) Effects of salinity stress on dry matter producion and accumulation in hybrid maize varieties. Turk. J. Agric. For. 30: 365-373.

Epstein E, Norlyn JD, Rush DW, Kingsbury RW, Kelley DB, Cunningham GA, Wrona AF (1980) Saline culture of crops: a genetic approach. Science. 210: 399-404.

Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longmans Green, Harlow,Essex,UK.

Gentzbittel L, Vear F, Zhang Y X, Berville A, Nicolas P (1995) Development of a consensus linkage RFLP map of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 90: 1079-1086.

Gonzalez S, Vereijken P, Vereijken JM (2007) Sunflower proteins: overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties. J. Sci. Food Agri. 87: 2173-2191.

Hajiboland R, Aliasgharzadeh A, Laiegh SF, Poschenrieder C (2010) Colonization with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves salinity tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Plant Soil. 331: 313-327.

Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2013) Exogenous sodium nitroprusside alleviates arsenic-induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings by enhancing antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. Ecotoxicology. 22: 584-596.

Hasanuzzaman M, Mahabub Alam M, Nahar K, Al-Mahmud J, Ahamed K, Fujita M (2014) Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates salt stress-induced oxidative damage in Brassica napus by enhancing the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 8: 631-639.

Hasegawa PM (2013) Sodium (Na+) homeostasis and salt tolerance of plants. Environ. Exp. Bot. 92: 19-31.

Hayat S, Hasan SA, Yusuf M, Hayat Q, Ahmad A (2010) Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on photosynthesis, fluorescence and antioxidant system in the presence or absence of salinity and temperature in Vigna radiata. Environ. Exp. Bot. 69: 105-112.

Herve D, Fabre F, Leroux N, Al Chaarani G, Planchon C, Sarrafi A, Gentzbittel L (2001) QTL analysis of photosynthesis and water status traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under greenhouse conditions. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1857-1864

Horie T, Karahara I, Katsuhara M (2012) Salinity tolerance mechanisms in glycophytes: an overview with the central focus on rice plants. Rice. 5: 11-29.

Hu J, Seiler G, Kole C (2010) Genetics, genomics and breeding of sunflower. Routledge, USA. pp: 342.

Hussain SA, Akhtar J, Anwar-ul-haq M, Ahmad R (2011) Growth, yield and ionic concentration of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes exposed to brackish water irrigation. Soil Environ. 30: 58-65.

Jayaraman K (1999) A Statistical Manual for Forestry Research, Food and agricultural organization of the united nations regional office for Asia and the pacific Bangkok, 234 Pp.

Kanwal H, Ashraf M, Hameed M (2013) Water relations and ionic composition in the seedlings of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline conditions. Pak. J. Bot. 45: 1221-1227.

Kaps M, Lamberson WR (2004) Biostatistics for Animal Science: an introductory text. 2nd Edition. CABI Publishing,Wallingford,Oxfordshire,UK, 504p.

Karimi H, Abasspour N, Mahmoodzadeh H (2012) Effect of salinity on some physiological attributes of four grape cultivars in vineyards of Uremia in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 28: 113-119.

Lenis JM, Ellersieck M, Blevins DG, Sleper DA, Nguyen HT, Dunn D, Lee JD Shannon JG (2011) Differences in ion accumulation and salt tolerance among glycine accessions. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 302-310.

Lexer C, Welch ME, Durphy JL, Rieseberg LH (2003) Natural selection for salt tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in wild sunflower hybrids: implications for the origin of Helianthus paradoxus, a diploid hybrid species. Mol. Ecol. 12: 1225-1235.

Liu BH (1998) Statistical Genomics; Linkage, mapping and QTL analysis. CRC Press. LLC.USA.

Liu J,ShiDC(2010) Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, inorganic ion and organic acid accumulations of sunflower in responses to salt and salt-alkaline mixed stress. Photosynthetica. 48: 127-134.

Lu KX, Cao BH, Feng XP, He Y, Jiang DA (2009) Photosynthetic response of salt tolerant and sensetive aoybean varieties. Photosynthetica. 47: 381-387.

Marino R, Ponnaiah M, Krajewski P, Frova C, Gianfranceschi L, Pe EM Gorla SM (2009) Addressing drought tolerance in maize by transcriptional profling and mapping. Mol. Genet. Genomics. 218: 163-179.

Mass EV, Hoffman GJ (1977) Crop Salt Tolerance Current Assesment, Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Division. Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy. 103: 115-134.

Matsui A, Ishida J, Morosawa T, Mochizuki Y, Kaminuma E, Endo TA, Okamoto M, Nambara E, Nakajima M, Kawashims M, Satou M, Kim JM, Kobayashi N, Toyoda T, Shinozaki K, Seki M (2008) Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis under drought, cold, high-salinity and ABA treatment conditions using a tiling array. Plant Cell Physiol. 49: 1135-1149.

Misra AN, Sahu SM, Misra M, Singh P, Meera I, Das N, Kar M, Shau P (1997) Sodium chloride induced changes in leaf growth, and pigment and protein contents in two rice cultivars. Biol. Plantarum. 39: 257-262.

Muller MH, Delieux F, Fernandez-Martinez JM, Garric B, Lecomte V, Anglade G, Leflon M, Motard C, Segura R (2009) Occurrence, distribution and distinctive morphological traits of weedy Helianthus annuus L. populations in Spain and France. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 56: 869-877.

Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 59: 651-681.

Murphy DJ (1994) Designer Oil Crops: Breeding, Processing and Biotechnology, VCH Weinheim-New York. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 157: 397-398.

Nenova V (2008) Growth and mineral concentrations of pea plants under different salinity levels and iron supply. Plant Physiol. 34: 189-202.

Nooryazdan H, Serieys H, Bacilieri R, David J, Berville A (2010) Structure of wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions based on agro-morphological traits. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 57: 27-39.

Okhovatian Ardakani AR, Mehrabanian M, Dehghani F, Ak-barzadeh A (2010) Salt tolerance evaluation and relative comparison in cuttings of different pomegranate cultivars. Plant Soil Environ. 56: 176-185.

Omami EN (2005) Response of amaranth to salinity. Ph.D. Thesis Horticulture. Faculty of natural and agriculture science, The University of Pretoria.

Pandit A, Rai V, Bal S, Sinha S, Kumar V, Chauhan M, Gautam RK, Singh R, Sharma PC, Singh AK, Gaikwad K, Sharma TR, Mohapatra T, Singh NK (2010) Combining QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling of bulked RILs for identification of functional polymorphism for salt tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol. Genet. Genomics. 284: 121-136.

Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants a review. Plant Soil Environ. 54: 89-99.

Poormohammd Kiani S, Talia P, Maury P, Grieu P, Heinz R, Perrault A, Nishinakamasu V, Hopp E, Gentzbittel L, Panieg N, Sarrafi A (2007a) Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Sci. 172: 773-787.

Poormohammd Kiani S, Grieu P, Maury P, Hewezi T, Gentzbittel L, Sarrafi A (2007b) Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 114: 193-207.

Poormohammd Kiani S, Maury P, Nouri L, Ykhlef N, Grieu P, Sarrafi A (2009) QTL analysis of yield-related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding. 128: 363-373.

Rabbi M, Barhoumi Z, Ksouri R, Abdelly C, Gharsalli M (2007) Interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency in Medicago ciliaris. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 330: 779-788.

Rabiei B, Sabouri H (2008) Mapping genes controlling quantitative traits. University ofGuilan Press. 193 Pp. (In Farsi).

Rai MK, Kalia RK, Singh R, Gangola MP,DhawanAK(2011) Developing stress tolerant plants through in vitro selection– an overview of the recent progress. Environ. Exp. Bot. 71: 89-98.

Reddy MP,VoraAB(2005) Salinity induced changes in pigment composition and chlorophyllase activity of chelidonium. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 29: 331-334.

RoyChoudhury A, Datta K,DattaSK(2011) Abiotic stress in plants: from genomics to metabolomics. In: Tuteja N, Gill SS, Tuteja R, editors. Omics and plant abiotic stress tolerance, Bentham Science Publishers, pp. 91-120.

Ryan J, Estefan G, Rashid A (2001) Soil and plant analysis: Laboratory Manual, interraction center for agricultural reseach in the dry areas (ICARDA) 2nd.Aleppo, Syrian, pp: 1-18.

Sabouri A (2009) QTLs mapping of physiological traits related to salt tolerance in young rice seedlings. Biol. Plantarum. 53: 657-662.

Shahbaz M, Ashraf M, Akram N, Hanif A, Hameed S, Joham S, Rehman R (2011) Saltinduced modulation in growth, photosynthetic capacity, proline content and ion accumulation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiol. Plant. 33: 1113-1122.

Silveira JA, Viegas Rde A, Rocha IM, Moreira AC, Moreira Rde A, Oliveira JT (2003) Proline accumulation and glutamine synthetase activity are increased by salt- induced proteolysis in cashew leaves. J. Plant Physiol. 160: 115-123.

Summart J, Thanonkeo P, Panichajakul S, Prathepha P, McManus MT (2010) Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline accumulation in Thai aromatic rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105, callus culture. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9: 145-152.

Szczerba MW, Britto DT, Kronzucker HJ (2009) K+ transport in plants: Physiology and molecular biology. J. Plant Physiol. 166: 447-466.

Tezara W, Mitchell V, Driscoll SP, Lawlor W (2002) Effects of water deficit and its interaction with co2 supply on biochemistry and physiology of photosynthesis in sunflower. J. Exp. Bot. 53: 1781-1791.

Tester M, Devenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann. Bot. 91: 1-25.

Walia H, Wilson C, Zeng L, Ismail AM, Condamine P, Close TJ (2007) Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of salinity stressed japonica and indica rice genotypes during panicle initiation stage. Plant Mol. Biol. 63: 609-623.

Wang ZJ, Wang YB, Wu Y Zhang H (2011) Quantitative trait loci controlling rice seed germination under salt stress. Euphytica. 178: 297-307.

Warner K, Miller JF, Demurin Y (2008) Oxidative stability of crude mid-oleic sunflower oils from seeds with high gamma and delta tocopherol levels. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85: 529-533.

Wong HM (2009) Probing the interactions between iron nutrition, salinity and ultraviolet-B radiation on the physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Master of Applied Science Thesis,LincolnUniversity.

Xu Y (2002) Global view of QTL: rice as a model. In: Kang MS, editor. Quantitative genetics, genomics and plant breeding.Wallingford(UK): CAB International, 109-134.

Xu W, Subudhi PK, Crasta OR, Rosenow DT, Mullet JE, Nguyen HT (2000) Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring stay-green in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Genome. 43: 461-469.

Yang XH, Lu CM (2005) Photosynthesis is improved by exogenous glycinebetaine in salt stressed mize plants. Physiol. Plant. 124: 343-352.

Zarei L, Farshadfar E, Haghparast R, Rajabi R, Mohammadi Sarab Badieh M (2007) Evaluation of some indirect traits and indices to identify drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 1204-1210.

Zhou G, Johnson P, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Zhou M (2012) Quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Mol. Breed. 29: 427-43.