کنترل ژنتیکی گلدهی در گیاه آرابیدوپسیس (Arabidopsis thaliana)

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان

2 دانشجو دکتری بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان

3 کارشناسی‌ارشد بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان

چکیده

انتقال از رشد رویشی به فاز زایشی از تحولات مهم در زندگی گیاهان می‌باشد. این پدیده در گیاهان عالی تحت تاثیر بسیاری از عوامل ژنتیکی و فیزیولوژیکی می‌باشد. شناسایی این عوامل یکی از اهداف مهم در اصلاح بسیاری از گیاهان می‌باشد. در دهه‌های اخیر گیاه آرابیدوپسیس به عنوان یک گیاه مدل در بسیاری از مطالعات مربوط به عمل گلدهی به کار رفته است و بسیاری از مسیرهای مربوط به کنترل گلدهی در این گیاه مشخص شده است. انتقال به مرحله گلدهی توسط ژن‌های ایجادکننده گل شامل FT،TSF، SOC1 و AGL24 تنظیم می‌شود که این ژن‌ها شناسایی ژن‌های مریستم گل را از طریق مسیرهای تناوب نوری، بهاره‌سازی، خودانگیزی و جیبرلین القاء می‌نمایند. تناوب نوری یکی از عمده‌ترین شرایط محیطی مؤثر در انتقال به گلدهی محسوب می‌شود که تحت تأثیر گیرنده‌های نوری فیتوکروم و کریپتوکروم و دو ژن CO و FT می‌باشد. ژن FLC که عمدتاً مسئول نیاز بهاره‌سازی در آرابیدوپسیس محسوب می‌شود مستقیماً به عنوان مانع تنظیم کننده‌های گلدهی FT و SOC1 بوده و از انتقال به گلدهی جلوگیری می‌کند. ژن‌های مسیر خودانگیزی عمدتاً مستقل از شرایط محیطی‌اند و باعث ممانعت از بیان FLC توسط فرآیند کنترل مبنی بر RNA یا تغییر کروماتین می‌شوند. در نهایت جیبرلین در زمانی که مسیر تناوب نوری غیر فعال است، به عنوان تسریع کننده گلدهی عمل می‌کند. در این مقاله مروری مکانیسم کنترل گلدهی در گیاه آرابیدوپسیس بررسی و اهمیت آن در اصلاح نباتات تشریح شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic Control of flowering in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asghar Mirzaie asl 1
  • Mishaneh Asgari 2
  • Maryam Alimirzaee 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Ph.D Student, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 M.Sc., Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Transition from vegetative growth to reproductive phase is one of the most important developments in plants life. This phenomenon is influenced by many genetic and physiological factors in higher plants. Identification of these factors is an important aim in breeding of many plants. In recent decades, Arabidopsis has been used as a model plant in many studies related to flowering pathways and many paths has been found in this plant. Transition to flowering stage is regulated by flower causing genes including FT, TSF, SOC1 and AGL24 which induce identification of flowering meristem genes through the paths of photoperiod, vernalization, spontaneous and gibberellin. Photoperiodism is one of the most important environmental affecting factors in transition to flowering influenced by light receptors of phytochrome and cryptochrome, and CO and FT genes. FLC gene which is mainly responsible for vernalization in Arabidopsis, directly is as a repressor of FT and SOC1 flowering regulators and prevents the transition to flowering. Autonomous pathway genes are largely independent from the environmental conditions, and prevent the FLC expression by RNA-based control process or chromatin change. Finally, the gibberellin acts as a flowering accelerator when the photoperiodism pathway is inactive. In the present paper, the mechanism of flowering control for Arabidopsis plant is investigated and its importance in plant breeding is described.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arabidopsis
  • Flowering process
  • Photoperiodism
  • Vernalization
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