شناسایی تنوع ارقام گندم سیستان از لحاظ ژن های مقاومت به عوامل بیماری های زنگ گندم با نشانگر ریز ماهواره

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

2 استادیار گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

3 استاد گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

4 مربی، گروه پژوهشی زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پژوهشکده کشاورزی، پژوهشگاه دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

در این پژوهش جهت بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی ارقام رایج گندم سیستان برای مقاومت به بیماری زنگ از 10 جفت آغازگر ریزماهواره‌ای پیوسته به ژن‌های مقاومت به بیماری زنگ‌های زرد، قهوه‌ای و سیاه استفاده شد. آغازگرهای 12C، SCS719 و Xgdm116 با 3 آلل کمترین و آغازگر Xgwm443 با 7 آلل، بیشترین آلل را داشتند. میانگین تعداد آلل در کل جایگاه‌ها برابر 55/4 بود. بیشترین شاخص چندشکلی (39/0) و شاخص نشانگری (29/2) به ترتیب مربوط به آغازگر Xgdm116 و Xgwm533 و کمترین میزان شاخص چندشکلی (1/0) و شاخص نشانگری (33/0) مربوط به آغازگر Xcfd36 بود. بیشترین تعداد آلل مؤثر، شاخص تنوع شانن و شاخص تنوع نی به ترتیب 45/1، 63/0، 44/0 متعلق به آغازگر Xgdm116 و کمترین میزان آلل مؤثر، شاخص تنوع شانن و شاخص تنوع نی به ترتیب 18/1، 19/0، 11/0 متعلق به آغازگر Xcfd36 بود. در بین ارقام گندم بیشترین درصد مکان چندشکلی، تعداد آلل مؤثر، شاخص تنوع نی و شاخص تنوع شانن به ترتیب 53/39، 27/1، 16/0 و 23/0 متعلق به رقم ارگ بود. تغییرات درون و بین ارقام با استفاده از تجزیه واریانس مولکولی نشان داد که 55 درصد کل تغییرات ژنتیکی درون ارقام وجود دارد. بیشترین و متنوع‌ترین ژن‌های مقاومت به زنگ از لحاظ مقاومت به بیماری زنگ زرد و قهوه‌ای به ترتیب، در رقم ارگ و رقم افلاک و نسبت به هر سه زنگ در رقم ارگ بود. آغازگرهای Xgdm116، Xwmc810 و SCS719 مؤثرترین آغازگرها در شناسایی و جداسازی ارقام مقاوم و حساس بودند. با توجه به اینکه رقم ارگ دارای بیشترین و متنوع‌ترین ژن‌های مقاومت بوده لذا پیشنهاد می‌گردد به‌عنوان یکی از پایه‌های پدری یا مادری در برنامه‌های اصلاحی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of genetic diversity between common Sistan wheat cultivars based on resistance genes to rust diseases by microsatellite marker

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maliheh Shahraki 1
  • Abbasali Emamjomeh 2
  • Baratali Fakheri 3
  • Bahman Fazeli-Nasab 4
1 M.Sc. Student, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
3 Professor, Assistant Professor, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
4 Lecturer, Research Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Agricultural Research Institute, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate genetic diversity between Sistan common wheat cultivars, it was used 10 SSRs primers associated to stem, leaf and yellow rusts resistance genes. The lowest (3) and highest (7) allele number were generated by 12C, SCS719 and Xgdm116 primers and Xgwm443 primer, respectively (4.55 allele per each primer). The highest genetic diversity (0.39) and MI (2.29) was related to Xgdm116 and Xgwm533 primers, respectively; also, the lowest genetic diversity (0.1) and MI (0.33) was related to Xcfd36 primer. Xgdm36 primer showed the highest Ne, Shannon diversity and Nei diversity (1.45, 0.63 and 0.44, respectively); on the other hand, Xcfd36 primer the lowest Ne, Shannon diversity and Nei diversity (1.18, 0.19 and 0.11, respectively). The highest polymorphic bands between wheat cultivars were related to Arg. Arg and Aflak showed the least diversity for resistance to yellow rust and leaf rust, respectively. Also, Arg had the highest diversity for three types of rusts. The Xgdm116, Xwmc810 and SCS719 primers had more effect on identification of wheat cultivars. Finally, Arg cultivar can be recommended as a donor parent in wheat breeding programs for rust resistance. To gain the highest heterosis, it can be suggested hybridization between Arg and Hirmand cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genetic Diversity
  • Rust disease
  • Resistance
  • SSRs marker
  • Triticum aestivum
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