تحریک پاسخ‌های دفاعی گیاه Phaseolus vulgaris به Rhizoctonia solani با استفاده از قارچ‌کش بیولوژیک

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد کرج

2 پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته‌ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، سازمان انرژی اتمی ایران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

بیماری مرگ گیاهچه یکی از بیماری‌های عمده Phaseolus vulgaris در نقاط مختلف کشور است. به‌دلیل خاک‌زاد بودن عوامل مرگ گیاهچه، استفاده از سموم شیمیایی نتیجه رضایت‌بخشی به بار نمی‌آورد، به همین جهت در سال‌های اخیر توجه زیادی به مهار زیستی به‌خصوص با استفاده از قارچ‌ تریکودرما شده است. یکی از مکانیسم‌های تریکودرما، تحریک سیستم دفاعی گیاه است. در تحقیق حاضر از پنج گونه‌ تریکودرما (هارزیانوم، ویریده، وارینس، اتروویریده و کنینجی) برای مقاومت در گیاه لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris) علیه Rhizoctonia solani استفاده شد. برای بررسی تأثیر القای جهش در ژنوم تریکودرما در میزان القای مقاومت در گیاه، از هر گونه موتانت برتر آن نیز برای تیمار گیاهان استفاده شد. آزمایش‌ها در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شدند. عملکرد، غلظت مالون‌دی‌الدهید، پرولین، کلروفیل a، b و کارتنوئیدها و پروتئین گیاهان تحت تیمار در گلخانه ارزیابی شد. داده‌ها نشان دادند، موتانت‌های این گونه‌های تریکودرما توانایی بیوکنترل بیماری بالاتری از والد همان گونه‌ها دارند که قدرت رقابت قارچ‌کش زیستی تهیه‌شده از موتانت‌ها را در مقایسه با قارچکش زیستی گونه‌های والد یا سموم شیمیایی بالاتر برد. میزان پروتئین محلول، فعالیت آنزیم‌ها و کلروفیل a، b و کارتنوئید در تیمارهای تریکودرما در مقایسه با شاهد تلقیح‌شده با بیمارگر افزایش یافت. در مجموع نتایج این آزمایش‌ها نشان داد، فرمولاسیون‌های پوشش بذر با قارچ‌های تریکودرمای موتانت و والد نسبت به سایر فرمولاسیون‌ها در کنترل بیماری مرگ گیاهچه و القای مقاومت در لوبیا دارای کارایی بهتری هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Induction of Resistance Related Responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to Rhizoctonia solani by Bio-fungicides

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra rezaloo 1
  • Samira Shahbazi 2
  • Hamed Askari 2
1 Seed Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
2 Nuclear Agriculture Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Alborz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Damping-off is one of the major diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris in different parts of the country. Because damping-off agents are soil-borne, the use of chemical methods had not satisfactory results, therefore, in recent years much attention has been paid to the biological struggle, especially the use of Trichoderma fungi. One of the Trichoderma mechanism is the induction of the plant's defense system. In this research, five spices of Trichoderma harzaianum, T. viride, T. Konigi, T. atroviride, T. virense were used to induce resistance of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) against Rhizoctonia solani. In order to investigate the effect of mutation induction in the Trichoderma genome on the rate of plant resistance induction, five superior mutants (from each Trichoderma spices) were used for treatment of plants. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications. Yield, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and protein concentration in treated plants in greenhouse condition were evaluated. The data from the evaluations showed that the mutants of these Trichoderma species decrease the diseases incidence more than the same wild type Trichoderma species, which lead to increase the bio control potential of mutant based bio-fungicides in competitive with wild type based or chemical compounds. The amount of soluble protein, enzymes activity, chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increased in Trichoderma treatments compared to control (pathogen treatment). The results of these experiments showed that seed coating formulations (mutant and wild) had better efficiency than other formulations for controlling damping-off disease and resistance induction in bean plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trichoderma
  • Rhizoctonia solani
  • Induced Resistance
  • Phaseolus vulgaris
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