افزایش غلظت فلاونوئیدهای ضد سرطانی روتین و کوئرستین موجود در Capparis spinosa تحت تأثیر برخی عوامل اکولوژیکی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دکتری بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

3 استاد گروه ایمونولوژی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مازندران، ساری

4 دانشیار گروه علوم پایه دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری

5 استاد گروه شیمی دارویی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مازندران، ساری

10.30473/cb.2021.55212.1821

چکیده

فلاونوئیدهای گیاهی، پاسخ‌های مثبتی به تغییرات جغرافیایی به‌خصوص ارتفاع از سطح دریا نشان می‌دهند و با توجه به اینکه گیاه دارویی علف مار (Capparis spinosa) در رویشگاه‌های مختلف از لحاظ اکولوژیکی پراکنش دارد، لذا در این پژوهش تأثیر ارتفاع بر روی محتوای فلاونوئیدهای ضد سرطانی روتین و کوئرستین در گیاه دارویی علف مار مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت بدین‌صورت که از سه منطقه کوهستانی شهرستان آمل (نمارستاق، دلارستاق و بهرستاق) در چهار ارتفاع با اختلاف ارتفاع‌های 150 متری از هم (حداقل 850 و حداکثر 1650 متر) و با سه تکرار در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در تابستان نمونه‌برداری انجام شد و از طریق روش اسپکتوفتومتری و HPLC، فلاونوئید کل، روتین و کوئرستین اندازه‌گیری و بررسی گردید. نتایج از نظر صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری، اختلاف معنی‌داری را در مناطق مختلف نشان داد (01/0p≤ و 05/0p≤)، به‌نحوی‌که بیشترین میزان فلاونوئید، روتین و کوئرستین در ارتفاع 1650 متر منطقه سوم (بهرستاق) به ترتیب با 17/0±51/4 میکرومول، 28/0±62/24 و 18/0±91/4 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن‌تر به‌دست آمد. لذا منطقه و ارتفاع کاملاً بر میزان متابولیت‌های دارویی علف مار تأثیر مثبت داشت. همچنین معادله خطوط رگرسیون و ضرایب تبیین (91/0r²=، 74/0r²= و 78/0r²=) نشان داد میزان فلاونوئید، روتین و کوئرستین در ارتفاع‌های مختلف مناطق نمارستاق، دلارستاق و بهرستاق با افزایش ارتفاع از سطح دریا روندی افزایشی داشته و شیب خط رگرسیون برای هر سه صفت مثبت بود. بنابراین طبیعت بهترین الگو برای به‌دست آوردن فلاونوئیدهای ضدسرطانی غلیظ‌تر و با ماهیت مطلوب‌تر در گیاهان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Increasing the concentration of rutin and quercetin anti-cancer flavonoids in Capparis spinosa affected by some ecological factors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Ghanbari 1
  • Mohammadreza Azimi 2
  • Alireza Rafiei 3
  • Puria Biparva 4
  • Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh 5
1 Ph.D. of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Zanjan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Zanjan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan, Iran
3 Professor of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Sari, Iran
5 Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Plant flavonoids show positive responses to geographical changes, especially altitude, and considering that the medicinal plant of capper (Capparis spinosa) is ecologically distributed in different habitats, so in this research the effect of altitude on the content of anti-cancer flavonoids such as rutin and quercetin were studied in capper which sampled in summer from three mountainous areas of Amol (Nemarestaq, Delarestaq and Behrestaq) at four altitudes with difference heights of 150 meters from each other (minimum 850 and maximum 1650 meters) and with three replications in a completely randomized design. Total flavonoids, rutin and quercetin were measured and analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC. The results showed a significant difference between measured traits in different regions (p≤0.01 and p≤0.05), so that the highest amount of flavonoids, rutin and quercetin were obtained at an altitude of 1650 m in the third region (Behrestaq) with 4.51±17 μmol, 24.62±0.28 and 4.91±0.18 mg/g fresh weight, respectively. Therefore, zone and altitude had a positive effect on the amount of medicinal metabolites of capper. Also, the equation of regression lines and explanatory coefficients (r² = 0.91, r² = 0.74 and r² = 0.78) showed that the amount of flavonoids, rutin and quercetin at different altitudes in Nemarestaq, Delarestaq and Behrestaq increased with increasing altitude and the slope of the regression line for all traits was positive. Therefore, nature is the best model for obtaining more concentrated and desirable anti-cancer flavonoids in plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Altitude
  • Ecological
  • HPLC
  • Metabolite
  • Medicinal Plant
Akhtar MS, Swamy MK (2017) Anticancer Plants: Clinical Trials and Nanotechnology. Springer Nature Singapore Pte. Ltd. Volume 3: 331p.
Alkadi HA (2020) Review on Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets. 20(1):16-26.
Alonso-Castro AJ, Domı´nguez F, Garcı´a-Carranca´ A (2013) Rutin exerts antitumor effects on nude mice bearing SW480 tumor. Arch. Med. Res. 44 (5): 346-351.
Arianfar M, Akbari Nodehi D, Hemmati Kh, Rostampour M (2018) The effect of Altitude and direction on the yield of essential oil and some phytochemical properties of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and Artemisia sieberi Besser. in the Rangeland of South Khorasan. J. Rangeland. 12 (3): 281-294.
Babazadeh A (2014) Colloidal characteristics of lipid nanocarriers (NLC) and nano-phytosomes containing routine and their study in a food model. M.sc Thesis. University of Tabriz. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. 167p.
Bertome J, Isabel Arrillage M, Segura J (2007) Essential oil variation within and among natural population of Lavandula latifolia and its relation to their ecological areas. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35:479-488.
Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JG (2002) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J. Food Drug Anal. 10(3): 178-182.
Cirak C, Radusiene J, Jakstas V, Ivanauskas L, Seyisd F, Yayla F (2017) Altitudinal changes in secondary metabolite contents of Hypercom androsaemum and Hypericum polyphyllum. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 70: 108-115.
Caunii A, Butu M, Rodino S, Motoc M, Negrea A, Samfira I, Butnariu M (2015) Isolation and Separation of Inulin from Phalaris arundinacea Roots. Rev. Chim. 66(4): 472-476.
Davise FS, Albrigo LG (1994) Citrus. CAB. International Press, Wallington, UK, P 9814.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Eslami B (2010) Antihemolytic and antioxidant activities of Allium paradoxum. Cent. Eur. J.Biol.5:338-345.
Gao Z, Xu H, Chen X, Chen H (2003) Antioxidant status and mineral contents in tissues of rutin and baicalin fed rats. Life Sci. 73: 1599-607.
Ghahreman A (2009) Iranian Chromophytes (Plant Systematics). Vol. II. Tehran Univ. Press, 852p.
Ghasemi K, Ghasemi Y, Ehteshamnia A, Nabavi M, Nabavi F, Ebrahimzadeh MA, pourmand F (2011). Influence of environmental factors on antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid content of walnut.  Med. plants. 5(7): 1128-1133.
Ghorbanzadeh A, Ghasemnejad A, Khoshhal Sarmast M, Nejadebrahimi S (2019) Study and comparison of phytochemicals of essential oils and antioxidant performance of branches of Juniperus communis L. in different habitats of Mazandaran and Golestan. Eco-phyt. J. Med. Plants. 7 (28): 15-32.
Guardia T, Rotelli AE, Juarez AO, Pelzer LE (2001) Antiinflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco. 56(9): 683-687.
Grdina DJ, Murley JS, Kataoka Y (2002) Radioprotectants: current status and new directions. Oncology. 63 (2): 2-10.
Gumul D, Korus J, Achremowicz B (2007) The influence of extrusion on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant/antiradical activity of rye grains (Secale cereal L.). Acta. Sci. Pol. 6: 103-111.
Hemmati Kh, Ghasemnejad A, Mashayekhi K, Bashiri Sadr Z (2012) Study of habitat effect on some flavonoid compounds of Tilia platifolia L. J. Plant Product. Res. 2: 141-148.
Hemmati Kh, Hemati N, Ghaedi A (2015) The effect of habitat, root diameter, and type of tissue on some secondary metabolites content of Licorice (Glycerrhiza glabra) in Khorasan Razavi (Ghoochan). J. Plant Environ. Physiol. 10(39): 1-9.
Hussain J, Bassal M, Hala Sarhan H, Aga MIH (2017) Qualitative and quantitative comparison of rutin, quercetin and gallic acid concentrations in Syrian Capparis spinosa. L Leaves. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 6(4): 407-415.
Inocencio C, Rivera D, Alcaraz F, Tomás-Barberán FA (2000) Flavonoid content of commercial capers (Capparis spinosa, C. siculaand, C. orientalis) produced in Mediterranean countries. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212: 70-74.
Isah T (2019) Stress and defense responses in plant secondary metabolites production. Biol. Res. 52(39): 1-25.
Jaakola L, Hohtola A (2010) Effect of latitude on flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. Plant Cell Environ. 11: 1239-1241.
Jamshidi M, Ahmadi HR, Rezazadeh Sh, Fathi F, Mazanderani M (2010) Study on phenolicd and anioxidant activity of some selected plant of Mazandaran province. Med. plants. 9(34): 177-183. 
Kaghazlu Z, Hemmati Kh, Khorasaninejad S (2016) Effect of Altitude on some secondary metabolites of different organs of Sambucus ebulus L. in three cities of Golestan province. J. Plant Environ. Physiol. 12 (47): 13-1.
Kakouee Z (2014) The evaluation and comparison of phytochemical characteristic and nutrient content in three native species of Artemisia deserti Krasch, Artemisia sieberi besser and Artemisia aucheri in South Khorasan. M.sc Thesis of Biochemistry, University of Birjand.
Katyal P, Batra N, Khajuria R (2014) Flavonoids and their therapeutic potential as a cancer agents: Biosynthesis, metabolism and regulation. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 3(6): 2188-2216.
Kreft S, Strukelj B, Gaberscik A, Kreft I (2002) Rutin in buckwheat herbs grown at different UV-B radiation levels: comparison of two UV spectrophotometer and an HPLC method. J. Exp. Bot. 53: 1801-1804.
Krol A, Amarowicz R, Weidner S (2014) Changes in the composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of grapevine roots and leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) under continuous of long-term drought stress. Acta Physiol. Plant. 36: 1491-1499.
Kumar P, Sethi S, Sharma RR, Singh S, Saha S, Sharma VK, Sharma SK, Varghese E (2019) Influence of altitudinal variation on the physical and biochemical characteristics of apple (Malus demostica). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 89(1): 145-52.
Labarrere B, Prinzing A, Dorey T, Chesneau E, Hennion F (2019) Variations of Secondary Metabolites among Natural Populations of Sub-Antarctic Ranunculus Species Suggest Functional Redundancy and Versatility. Plants. 8(234): 1-23.
Lin JP, Yang JS, Lin JJ, Lai, KC, Lu HF, Ma CY, Sai C. Wu R, Wu KC, Chueh FS, Gibson Wood W, Chung JG (2012) Rutin inhibits human leukemia tumor growth in a murine xenograft model in vivo. Environ. Toxicol. 27 (8), 480–484.
Mazaraie A, Fahmideh L (2020) Evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of three widely-used medicinal plant in natural habitats of Fars province. Eco-phyt. J. Med. Plants. 29 (1): 90-105.
Moghaddasian B, Eradatmand Asli D, Alaghemand A, Torabi A (2013) Simultaneous Determination of Rutin and Quercetin in Different parts of Capparis spinosa. BEPLS. 2(2): 35-38.
Mohammadnejad Ganji M, Moradi H, Ghanbari A (2017) Quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of Lavandula angustifolia under the influence of ecological factor of altitude. Nova. Biol. Reperta. 4 (2): 166-172.
Mohammadi pour S, Hemati KH, Ebrahimi P (2014) The effect of height on the secondary metabolites of Sambucus ebulus L.  M.Sc.  Thesis of Gorgan University Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 115p.
Molaie M, Ardavan M, Safidi K, Bahrami B, Hashemi Majd K (2015) Ecological factors affecting the distribution of Artemisia aucheri Boiss in the southeastern part of Sabalan. Sci. J. Rangeland. 11(2): 139-151.
Mouria M, Gukovskaya AS, Jung Y, Buechler P, Hines OJ, Reber HA, Pandol SJ (2002) Food-derived polyphenols inhibit pancreatic cancer growth through mitochondrial cytochrome C release and apoptosis. Int. J. Cancer. 98 (5): 761–769.
  Musallam M, Duwayri R, Shibli R, Alali F (2012) Investigation of Rutin Content in Different Plant Parts of Wild Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) Populations from Jordan. J. Med. Plant Res. 6: 27-36.
Najjarfiroozjaei M, Hemmati K, Khorasaninejad S, Daraei-Garmehkhani A, Bagherifard A (2014) Effect of altitude on morphological and biochemical characteristics in leaves of Urtica dioica L. in Mazandaran and Gilan. Iranian Plant Ecophysiol. Res. J. 3 (35): 1-11.
Norouzi V, Yousefzadeh S, Asilan K, Mansoorifar S (2016) Evaluation of changes in essential oil, chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins and flavonoids of Mentha longifolia L. Hods. Subsp. Longifolia in various Marand habitats. Eco-phytochem. J. Med. Plants.5(1):64-52.
Rahnavard R, Razavi N (2016) A review on the medical effects of Capparis spinosa L. Adv. Herb. Med. 2(1):44-53.
Ramezani Z, Aghel N, Keyghobadi H (2008) Rutin from different parts of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan/Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 11(5):768-772.
Rashedi H, Amiri H, Gharezi A (2015) Assessment of phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the Capparis spinosa L. in Khuzestan province. J. Qazvin Univ. Med. Sci. 18(6): 11-17.
Saberi M, NikNahad H, Heshmati G, Barani H, Shahriari A (2016) Evaluation of changes in some of the active ingredients of watermelon extract of Abu Jahl watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrab) in two habitats of Sistan and Baluchestan province. J. Plant Ecosys. Conserv. 5 (10): 63-49.
Suyal R, Rawat S, Rawal RS, Bhatt ID (2019) Variability in morphology, phytochemicals, and antioxidants in Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All populations under different altitudes and habitat conditions in Western Himalaya, India. Environ. Monit. Assess. 191 (3): 783-801.
Tajali A, Khazeipour M (2002) Effect of altitude and organs on hawthorn flavonoids (Crataegus microphylla). Int. J. Biol. Sci. 7: 54-58.
Tlili N, Khaldi A, Triki S, Munné-Bosch S (2010) Phenolic Compounds and Vitamin Antioxidants of Caper (Capparis spinosa). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 65: 260-265.
Yu L, Yang J, Wang X, Jiang B, Sun Y, Ji Y (2017) Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Capparis spinosa L. and the related mechanisms. Oncol. Rep. 37: 357-367.
Zhang H, Ma ZH (2018) Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa as a Medicinal Plant. Nutrients. 10: 1-14.